Engineering Indonesia’s

Artikel, Refrensi, Jurnal, Teknologi & All About Engineering

  • Artikel Otomotif

Bridge maintenance, inspection and repair

Posted by blogengineeringindonesia pada November 9, 2008

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Section
I. GENERAL INFORMATION
Purpose
References
II. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Programming and economic considerations
Elements of the maintenance program
III. FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
Military requirements
Factors of frequency
IV. QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTION PERSONNEL
Army
Air Force

2. BRIDGE STRUCTURES
Definition
Classification
Typical bridges
Box culverts
Military bridges

3. BRIDGE ELEMENTS
I. SUBSTRUCTURE ELEMENTS
General
Abutments
Piers and bents
II. SUPERSTRUCTURES
General
Decks
Floor systems
Main supporting members
Bracing
III. MISCELLANEOUS ELEMENTS
Bearings
Pin and hanger supports
Expansion joints
Approaches
Railings, sidewalks, and curbs
Deck drains
Utilities
Lighting
Dolphins and fenders
Welds, bolts, and rivets

4. MECHANICS OF BRIDGES
General
Bridge forces
Stress

5. BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
I. CONCRETE
General
Physical and mechanical properties
Indication and classification of deterioration
Causes of deterioration
Assessment of concrete
II. STRUCTURAL STEEL
Physical and mechanical properties
Indicators and classification of deterioration
Causes of deterioration
Assessment of deterioration
III. TIMBER
Physical and mechanical properties
Deterioration: indicators and causes
Assessment of deterioration
IV. WROUGHT AND CAST IRON
General
Physical and mechanical properties
Deterioration: indicators and causes
V. STONE MASONRY
General
Physical and mechanical properties
Indicators of deterioration
Causes of deterioration
VI. ALUMINUM
General
Deterioration: indicators and causes
VII. FOUNDATION SOILS
General
Types of movement
Effects on structures
Indicators of movement
Causes of foundation movements
VIII. WATERWAYS
General
Types of movement and effects on waterways

CHAPTER 6. BRIDGE REDUNDANCY AND FRACTURE CRITICAL MEMBERS (FCMs)
I. GENERAL
Introduction
Fracture critical members
Redundancy
Criticality of FCMs
II. EXAMPLES
Two-girder system (or single-box girder)
Two-truss system
Cross girders and pier caps
Supports and suspended spans

7. INSPECTION CONSIDERATIONS
I. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Basic
Concrete inspection
Steel inspection
Timber inspection
Cast iron, wrought iron, and aluminum inspection
Special equipment
II. SAFETY
General
Bridge site organization
Personal protection
Special safety equipment
Climbing of high steel
Confined spaces
III. DOCUMENTATION OF THE BRIDGE INSPECTION
General
Planning and documenting the inspection
Structure evaluation
IV. INSPECTION PROCEDURE
General
Inspection sequence

CHAPTER 8. BRIDGE COMPONENT INSPECTION
Section I. SUBSTRUCTURES
General
Abutments
Retaining walls
Piers and bents
Pile bents
Dolphins and fenders
II. SUPERSTRUCTURES
Concrete beams and girders
Steel beams and girders
Pin and hanger connections
Floor systems
Diaphragms and cross frames
Trusses
Lateral bracing portals and sway frames
Tied arches
Metal bearings
Elastomeric bearings
Decks
Expansion joints
Railings, sidewalks, and curbs
Approaches
Bridge drainage
III. MISCELLANEOUS INSPECTION ITEMS
Waterways
Paint
Signing
Utilities
Lighting
IV. INSPECTION OF RAILROAD BRIDGES
General
Railroad deck types
Track inspection
Deck inspection
Superstructure inspection
Substructure inspection
Recommended practices
V. BOX CULVERTS
Types of distress
Inspection

9. FINAL DOCUMENTATION
Annual (Army) and biannual (Air Force) inspection documentation
Triennial (Army) and every third biannual (Air Force) bridge inspection
documentation

10. GENERAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND UPGRADE
I. INTRODUCTION
General
Preventive maintenance
Replacement
Repair
Bridge upgrade
II. COMMON MAINTENANCE TASKS
General
Cleaning deck drains
Ice and snow removal
Bank restoration
Traffic control items
Bearings and rollers
Debris and removal
Bridge joint systems
Scour protection
III. COMMON REPAIR TASKS
General
Abutment stability
Drift and floating ice
Scour
Settlement
Waterway
Section IV. COMMON METHODS TO UPGRADE EXISTING BRIDGES
General
Shortened span lengths
Add stringers
Strengthen piers
Reduce deadload
Posttensioned bridge components
Strengthen individual members

CHAPTER 11. STEEL BRIDGE MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND UPGRADE
I. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE FOR CORROSION
General
Structural steel
II. REPAIR AND STRENGTHEN
General
Connections
Repair of structural members
III. MEMBER REPLACEMENT
Tension members
Compression members/columns
Beams
IV. UPGRADE STEEL BRIDGES
Creation of a composite action
Posttensioning
Truss systems

12. TIMBER BRIDGE MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND UPGRADE
I. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
General
Fire protection
II. REPAIR AND STRENGTHEN TIMBER MEMBERS
General
Connections
Repair of graded lumber
Repair of piles
Repair of posts
Repair of sway bracing
III. MEMBER REPLACEMENT
Replacement of tension timber components
Replacement of compression timber components
Replacement of flexural timber components (stringers)
Replacement of timber decking
IV. TIMBER BRIDGE UPGRADE
Strengthen intermediate supports (piers)
Shorten span length
Posttensioning
Add stringers
Strengthen individual members

13. CONCRETE BRIDGE MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND UPGRADE
I. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
General
Surface coating
Joint maintenance
Cathodic protection
II. REPAIR AND STRENGTHEN
General
Crack repairs
Spall repair
Joint repair
Abutments and wingwalls
Bridge seats
Columns and piles
Stringers and beams
Decks
Replacement of concrete members
Section III. UPGRADE CONCRETE BRIDGES
General upgrade methods
Strengthen individual members
Prestressed concrete members

download : pdf1

2 Tanggapan to “Bridge maintenance, inspection and repair”

  1. NEW TECHNIQUE FOR NDE STRUCTURAL HEALTH IN STEEL BRIDGES

    Introduction

    Internal stresses are to be considered as the following: 1) Operational strains referring to loads that the material is subject and calculated 2) Residual stresses in the material caused by heat treatments or stresses caused by welding, forging, casting, etc. The new technique is able to measure the applied load and residual stress that are balanced on the surface of the material, and in a relatively large volume, at times even the same size as the entire structures. This stress is part of the metal’s elasticity field and has a three axis spatial orientation.

    Description

    Elastic oscillations (also called vibrations) of an elastic material consisting of elementary masses alternately moving around their respective balance positions; these movements cause a transformation of the potential energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon takes place due to reactions (elastic forces) that the aforementioned masses produce in opposition to elastic movements; these reactions are proportional according to Hooke’s Law to the same movements. The elastic waves that are produced propagate according to a fixed speed that depends on how rapidly the elemental masses begin to oscillate.
    Elastic waves of this type are called “permanently progressive”, and they propagate at a constant speed which is absolutely independent of the speed with which the elemental masses move during the oscillating motion, and therefore also their respective oscillations. It is easy to verify that the elastic oscillations, from a material point P (in which the elemental mass m is supposedly concentrated) are harmonic. In reality, due to the fact that in any moment the elastic force that is applied to P is proportional to the distance x of the point from its position of balance 0, P acceleration (caused by the proportionality between the forces and the corresponding accelerations) is also proportional to x; this is demonstrated in the harmonic movement. The impulse creates in the metallic mass a harmonic oscillation (vibration) which is characterized by a specific frequency ù² and by a width equal to dx (movement of the relative mass). If a constant impulse is produced in the metallic material, the elastic oscillation generated in the P point will also produce a sinusoidal wave with specific width, acceleration, speed and period values.
    This wave is longitudinal when the direction of the vibration is equal to the P point movement, or is transversal, and in both cases the values of the results are identical; the only difference is the ¼ delay of the phase.

    Impact with the metallic surface results an elastic deformation energy.

    Ed = Ei – ( Ek + Ep )

    Ei = Impact energy Ek = Kinetic energy

    Ed = elastic deformation energy Ep = plastic deformation energy + lost energy

    Ed = ½ K dx² = ½ m ω² dx² K = constant elastic material (stiffness)

    Behavior elastic metals, due to new discovery

    Fig. 1 Fig.2

    The system works through the accelerometer mounted with a magnetic base to generate the acceleration value of the vibrations created by the device impacting on the metal surface. The acceleration value, in combination with other parameters, permits obtaining the exact value of the residual stress or load applied in the desired point. This value will appear on the display directly in N / mm ². For non-magnetic metals, wax or gel will be used to mount the accelerometer.
    The system doesn’t recognize the compressive from tensile stress.

    Fig .3

    Quality of surface

    The test method requires smooth surfaces free of oxides, paint, lubricants, oil. The indentation deep and the accurately of the test depend from the roughness of the surface. For the preparation of the surface, is necessary, must be careful not to alter the surface over certain values of heating or hardening. More practical results can be realized by using a high-speed grinder (> 12000 rpm).

    Conclusion

    Application of this type of non-destructive method NDT provides the possibility to measure residual stress and the effect of the service load in a very rapid and simple way on any point of the metallic surface.
    The testing method requires smooth surfaces free of oxides, paint, lubricants and oil. Precision depends on the roughness of the surface.
    This technology has demonstrated its validity over years of mechanical experimentation and has confirmed its theoretical basis.

    About residual stresses

    The residual stress in a metal doesn’t depend on its hardness, but from the elasticity module or Young module and from its chemical composition.
    The hardness of a metal indicates its ability to absorb elastic or plastic energy, but through it not possible to determine the value of residual stress. In a metal with the same hardness we will have different values of this stress. .
    The residual stresses tend to equilibrate themselves in the surface of the material.
    The measurement made with all the major methods, X-ray, string gauge (destructive), optical etc. the residual stress is determined between the measuring the displacement of the equilibrium point the reticule crystalline.
    The method discovered analyzes the value of frequency and vibratory acceleration generated by an impulse with the subsequent reaction elastic (elastic field) from the metal.

    You will realize the convenience of this technique.
    1) Portable system easy to use and very swift.
    2) NDT non-destructive test.
    3) Repeatable in unlimited number of points.
    4) All metals type (a-magnetic)
    5) Don’t expensive. Effective for welding, hardened treatments, vessels control,
    bridges, pipes line, aeronautics, NDT inspection for every metal types.

    Test example

    p.i. Ennio Curto.

  2. bantuin ya
    bisa gak minta copian pdf untuk bridge maintenance, inspection and repair terbitan 9 november 2008

    thanks

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s

 
%d blogger menyukai ini: